1.On-the-job Training and Lectures
The 2 most ceaselessly used kinds of training are on-the-job training and lectures, though little research exists as to the effectiveness of either. It is often impossible to show somebody everything she needs to know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training usually supplements different kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site training; however on-the-job training is continuously the only type of training. It’s usually informal, which means, unfortunately, that the trainer does not concentrate on the training as much as she ought to, and the trainer may not have a well-articulated image of what the novice must learn.
On-the-job training will not be profitable when used to avoid growing a training program, although it might be an effective a part of a well-coordinated training program.
Lectures are used because of their low cost and their capacity to succeed in many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication versus interactive learning techniques, are much criticized as a training device.
2. Programmed Instruction (PI)
These devices systematically present information to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement rules to promote appropriate responses. When PI was originally developed in the 1950s, it was thought to be useful only for primary subjects. At this time the method is used for skills as diverse as air visitors control, blueprint reading, and the analysis of tax returns.
3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
With CAI, students can be taught at their own tempo, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the pc, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Instructional alternatives could be quickly chosen to suit the student’s capabilities, and efficiency can be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance.
4. Audiovisual Methods
Both television and film lengthen the range of skills that may be taught and the way information may be presented. Many systems have electronic blackboards and slide projection equipment. The usage of strategies that combine audiovisual systems resembling closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new term for this type of training, teletraining. The characteristic on ” Sesame Street ” illustrates the design and evaluation of one of television’s favorite children’s program as a training device.
Training simulations replicate the essential characteristics of the real world which might be necessary to produce both learning and the switch of new knowledge and skills to application settings. Both machine and other types of simulators exist. Machine simulators typically have substantial degrees of. physical fidelity; that’s, they characterize the real world’s operational equipment. The primary function of simulation, nevertheless, is to produce psychological fidelity, that is, to reproduce in the training those processes that will be required on the job. We simulate for a number of reasons, including to control the training environment, for safety, to introduce feedback and other learning rules, and to reduce cost.
6. Business games
They are the direct progeny of war games that have been used to train officers in fight strategies for hundreds of years. Virtually all early enterprise games have been designed to teach basic business skills, but more current games additionally embody interpersonal skills. Monopoly could be considered the quintessential enterprise game for younger capitalists. It’s probably the first place kids realized the words mortgage, taxes, and go to jail.
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